Alternate bearing in mango pdf Glenburn

alternate bearing in mango pdf

Studies on biochemical differences in regular and biennial A study was made to induce flowering in an “off-year” in the strictly irregularly-bearing mango cultivar ‘Langra’. Cycocel 3000 mg/l on ringed shoots produced the largest number of flower panicles (62.3%), whereas the control recorded the lowest number (8%).

Socio-economic impact of biological control of mango

The Hindu Tips to get regular bearing in mango. Alternate bearing was analyzed for the mango growing season from 2004 to 2007. It was considered a change in yield due to alternate bearing if more than 75% of the yield in two seasons was obtained in one season. If the yield was higher as in the previous year it was classified as yield increase, when it was lower, it was classified as decrease. If in both years more than 25% of the yield of, The mango inflorescence is a much-branched terminal panicle with a few hundred to over 6000 flowers (Wolstenholme and Mullins, 1982). Number of flowers per inflorescence in mango varies depending on the cultivar, the cultural practices adopted and the climatic conditions experienced by the trees (Chadha and Pal, 1986). The mango is andromonoecious, which means that each inflorescence bears.

Problems of alternate (or biennial) bearing in fruit trees have been studied extensively in the past. There are a number of reports about alternate bear- ing in fruit plants, including pistachio Alternate bearing (AB) and irregular bearing (IB) present major challenges to growers and marketers of avocados. This problem is common to most tree fruit crops, and varies in intensity, It can manifest countrywide, regionally, on a specific farm and even in the branches of a single tree. AB is typically initiated by an abnormally heavy or light crop in young trees, followed by a light or

3/05/2018 · Irregular and alternate bearing in mango (आम में अनियमित फलन को कैसे नियंत्रित करें) Bihar Agricultural University Sabour Loading... Mango Varieties and their Charecteristics. Alphonso (Happus): Fruit medium in size, ovate oblique in shape, orange yellow in colour; juice is moderate-abundant; excellent keeping quality, good for pulping and canning; mainly exportedas fresh fruit to other countries; Flesh develops spongy tissue.

The mango inflorescence is a much-branched terminal panicle with a few hundred to over 6000 flowers (Wolstenholme and Mullins, 1982). Number of flowers per inflorescence in mango varies depending on the cultivar, the cultural practices adopted and the climatic conditions experienced by the trees (Chadha and Pal, 1986). The mango is andromonoecious, which means that each inflorescence bears horticulturae Article Combined Effects of Fertilizer, Irrigation, and Paclobutrazol on Yield and Fruit Quality of Mango Babul C. Sarker 1,*, Mohammad A. Rahim 2 and Douglas D. Archbold 3

Alternate bearing: Most of the commercial varieties of mango tend to produce crops in an alternate or biennial patter. Alternate bearing in fruit trees is the habit of bearing heavily in one year called the on year and very little or not all in the second year … In mango, this is believed to be the result of depleted carbohydrate reserves and the imbalance can usually be even out somewhat by adjusting fertilizer application rates accordingly. Removal of flower clusters during bloom may also help alleviate the problem.

reliable bearing, and off-season bearing can achieved. In Hawaii, biennial bearing is a heavy crop one year may prevent further for two years or longer. In the Hawaiian leeward sections, which are drier during the months, are considered ideal for production (Yee 1979). Regulating Mango Flowering Tropical climates are conducive to vegetative growth of perennial tropical fruit but flowering and alternate bearing and if ABI = 1.0, there is a complete alternate bearing. Therefore, if the alternate bearing index Therefore, if the alternate bearing index would be close to 1, the differences in crop production between two years are very high.

Irregular and alternate bearing in mango is a major problem faced by mango growers. This problem causes great economic loss to the growers with the poor yield or failure of crop during "off year'' and the selling produce at low price during "on year'' due to fruit glut in the market. Mango has become naturalized and adapted throughout the tropics and subtropics. Much of the spread and natu- Theleaves are simple, without stipules, and alternate, with petioles 1–12 cm (0.4–5 in) long. Theleaves are variable

Books alternate fruit bearing of temperate fruit tree enrych (PDF, ePub, Mobi) Page 1 alternate fruit bearing of pdftropical fruit trees - kauai nursery & landscaping, inc.mango - nhbaegle Biennal bearing, alternate bearing, alternate year cropping, irregular bearing or cropping, periodicity in mango cropping, are all synonymous terms which are different from the unfruitfulness and shy cropping (9, 19, 20). Various workers have tried to tackle this problem from different angels but so far without any significant success. The problem in itself is an age old one and is

Alternate bearing in mango..?? - 3262672 1. Log in Join now 1. Log in Join now Secondary School. Science. 5 points Alternate bearing in mango..?? Ask for details ; Follow Report 11.04.2018 Log in to add a comment Answers Me · Beginner Know the answer? IRREGULAR AND alternate bearing in mango is a major problem faced by mango growers. This problem causes great economic loss to the growers with the poor yield or …

Pruning malformed mango shoots at bearing stage Alternate bearing needs to be managed by reducing fruiting during a year by adoption of pruning and thinning practices Providing life saving irrigation at the critical stage of fruit growth etc. Providing life saving irrigation at the critical stage of fruit growth etc. Integrated nutrient and water management. Management of spongy tissue through Mango Varieties and their Charecteristics. Alphonso (Happus): Fruit medium in size, ovate oblique in shape, orange yellow in colour; juice is moderate-abundant; excellent keeping quality, good for pulping and canning; mainly exportedas fresh fruit to other countries; Flesh develops spongy tissue.

Evaluation of alternate bearing intensity in Iranian

alternate bearing in mango pdf

A reevaluation of alternate bearing in pistachio Request PDF. Flowering in mango trees make them especially challenging for physiologists, breeders, and growers; Mango is a terminal bearing species and the factors which determine switching from vegetative to reproductive mode are poorly understood. In general first, mango pass through a juvenile stage which lasts for several years following germination during which flowering does not occur; second, Alternate bearing intensity is affected by the kind of rootstock, for some the production in off year represents 75% of the production observed in on year, while for others this value is only of 25% (Crane and Nelson, 1972)..

STUDY OF FLOWERING AND ALTERNATE BEARING OF MANGO. Mango Varieties Alphonso (Happus) State : Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. Fruit medium in size, ovate oblique in shape, orange yellow in colour; juice is moderate-abundant;, Biennal bearing, alternate bearing, alternate year cropping, irregular bearing or cropping, periodicity in mango cropping, are all synonymous terms which are different from the unfruitfulness and shy cropping (9, 19, 20). Various workers have tried to tackle this problem from different angels but so far without any significant success. The problem in itself is an age old one and is.

Alternate Bearing in Fruit Trees avocadosource

alternate bearing in mango pdf

High Density Planting of Mangoes The Mango Factory. Alternate bearing or biennial bearing is one of the major problems in many fruit crops. Each fruit tree in commercial bearing does not bear equal crop year after year, which makes fruit cultivation less remunerative to the growers and fruit traders. .. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ball_bearing reliable bearing, and off-season bearing can achieved. In Hawaii, biennial bearing is a heavy crop one year may prevent further for two years or longer. In the Hawaiian leeward sections, which are drier during the months, are considered ideal for production (Yee 1979). Regulating Mango Flowering Tropical climates are conducive to vegetative growth of perennial tropical fruit but flowering and.

alternate bearing in mango pdf

  • A reevaluation of alternate bearing in pistachio Request PDF
  • Effect of ringing and growth retardants on growth and
  • MANGOS Home UC Davis Western Institute for Food Safety
  • Influence of Carbohydrates Mineral Nutrients and Plant

  • impractical due to long juvenile period (6-8 years approximately), alternate bearing, large number of flowers within a panicle, disproportionate number of staminate flowers, a high frequency of premature flower and fruit drop, cashew, mango, poison ivy and oak, pepper tree and sumac. The tree has a pinnately compound leaf. Each leaf subtends a single axillary bud. Most of these lateral axillary buds differentiate into inflorescence primordia and produce a nut-bearing rachis the following year; thus, pistachios bear laterally on one-year-old wood. Botanically, pistachio nuts are drupes, the same classification for

    also reduces the alternate bearing habits of some varieties. Chemicals such as ethepon (Ethrel®) or foliar application of potas- sium nitrate can also initiate flowering. • In Dashehari mango, the average yield in high density is reportedly 9.6 tonnes compared to 0.2 tonnes in low density planting. • This yield can further be improved in alternate bearing cultivars like

    Alternate Names. Kangit, idele, mago, mangot, Mango leaves are occasionally fed to The inflorescence is a much-branched panicle bearing many very small reliable bearing, and off-season bearing can achieved. In Hawaii, biennial bearing is a heavy crop one year may prevent further for two years or longer. In the Hawaiian leeward sections, which are drier during the months, are considered ideal for production (Yee 1979). Regulating Mango Flowering Tropical climates are conducive to vegetative growth of perennial tropical fruit but flowering and

    alternate bearing and if ABI = 1.0, there is a complete alternate bearing. Therefore, if the alternate bearing index Therefore, if the alternate bearing index would be close to 1, the differences in crop production between two years are very high. Books alternate fruit bearing of temperate fruit tree enrych (PDF, ePub, Mobi) Page 1 alternate fruit bearing of pdftropical fruit trees - kauai nursery & landscaping, inc.mango - nhbaegle

    Mango varieties have been evaluated in Brazil for only a few cycles of production. Therefore some mango varieties were evaluated under irrigation and for a longer period of production. Alternate bearing was analyzed for the mango growing season from 2004 to 2007. It was considered a change in yield due to alternate bearing if more than 75% of the yield in two seasons was obtained in one season. If the yield was higher as in the previous year it was classified as yield increase, when it was lower, it was classified as decrease. If in both years more than 25% of the yield of

    bearing mango cultivars were tested for two years under North Sudan climates. Results indicated the advantage of Results indicated the advantage of paclobutrazol on inducing flowering of the biennially bearing mango cultivars, Miska, Mahmoudi, and Totocombo during Biennial bearing (or alternate) bearing is a term used in pomology to refer to trees that have an irregular crop load from year to year. In the "on" year too much fruit is set, leading to small fruit size.

    Alternate bearing (AB) and irregular bearing (IB) present major challenges to growers and marketers of avocados. This problem is common to most tree fruit crops, and varies in intensity, It can manifest countrywide, regionally, on a specific farm and even in the branches of a single tree. AB is typically initiated by an abnormally heavy or light crop in young trees, followed by a light or Alternate bearing: Most of the commercial varieties of mango tend to produce crops in an alternate or biennial patter. Alternate bearing in fruit trees is the habit of bearing heavily in one year called the on year and very little or not all in the second year …

    Biennal bearing, alternate bearing, alternate year cropping, irregular bearing or cropping, periodicity in mango cropping, are all synonymous terms which are different from the unfruitfulness and shy cropping (9, 19, 20). Various workers have tried to tackle this problem from different angels but so far without any significant success. The problem in itself is an age old one and is Mango Varieties and their Charecteristics. Alphonso (Happus): Fruit medium in size, ovate oblique in shape, orange yellow in colour; juice is moderate-abundant; excellent keeping quality, good for pulping and canning; mainly exportedas fresh fruit to other countries; Flesh develops spongy tissue.

    PDF On Jan 1, 2011, V. K. Singh and others published Appraisal of alternate bearing rhythm in mango cv. ‘Mallika’ under subtropical conditions of Lucknow The term biennial, alternate or irregular bearing generally signifies the tendency of mango trees to bear a heavy crop in one year (On year) and very little or no crop in the succeeding year (Off year).

    Although there was a strong tendency for individual spurs to not bear fruit in successive years, whole trees or orchards are not strongly alternate bearing because fewer than 20% of the spurs on a tree bear fruit in a given year (Tombesi et al. Mango Varieties and their Charecteristics. Alphonso (Happus): Fruit medium in size, ovate oblique in shape, orange yellow in colour; juice is moderate-abundant; excellent keeping quality, good for pulping and canning; mainly exportedas fresh fruit to other countries; Flesh develops spongy tissue.

    Practices for regular bearing in mango — Vikaspedia

    alternate bearing in mango pdf

    The Hindu Tips to get regular bearing in mango. Alternate Bearing in Fruit Trees1 S.P. Monselise and E.E. Goldschmidt Department of Horticulture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel, Alternate bearing in mango..?? - 3262672 1. Log in Join now 1. Log in Join now Secondary School. Science. 5 points Alternate bearing in mango..?? Ask for details ; Follow Report 11.04.2018 Log in to add a comment Answers Me В· Beginner Know the answer?.

    HRT-101 Alternate Bearing IASRI

    Mango Alternate bearing of mango. Alternate bearing (AB) and irregular bearing (IB) present major challenges to growers and marketers of avocados. This problem is common to most tree fruit crops, and varies in intensity, It can manifest countrywide, regionally, on a specific farm and even in the branches of a single tree. AB is typically initiated by an abnormally heavy or light crop in young trees, followed by a light or, Biennal bearing, alternate bearing, alternate year cropping, irregular bearing or cropping, periodicity in mango cropping, are all synonymous terms which are different from the unfruitfulness and shy cropping (9, 19, 20). Various workers have tried to tackle this problem from different angels but so far without any significant success. The problem in itself is an age old one and is.

    Mango Varieties Alphonso (Happus) State : Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. Fruit medium in size, ovate oblique in shape, orange yellow in colour; juice is moderate-abundant; IRREGULAR AND alternate bearing in mango is a major problem faced by mango growers. This problem causes great economic loss to the growers with the poor yield or …

    Alternate bearing is a serious problem prevailing in many choice varieties; rhythm of ‘On’ (heavy crop) and ‘Off’ (lean or no crop) years occurs consecutively ; profitability of mango orcharding is affected. Commercial varieties of Uttar Pradesh, Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, Bombay Green and Lucknow Safeda, are alternate bearers. In general, bearing mango trees should receive about 1 pound of a complete fertilizer (containing N, P, and K) annually for each inch of trunk diameter measured 4 to 5 feet above ground level. Half of the fertilizer should be applied just before flowering and the rest applied after the crop is harvested. Supplemental N should be applied just before flowering rather than during fall and winter

    horticulturae Article Combined Effects of Fertilizer, Irrigation, and Paclobutrazol on Yield and Fruit Quality of Mango Babul C. Sarker 1,*, Mohammad A. Rahim 2 and Douglas D. Archbold 3 • In Dashehari mango, the average yield in high density is reportedly 9.6 tonnes compared to 0.2 tonnes in low density planting. • This yield can further be improved in alternate bearing cultivars like

    In alternate bearing olive trees, high yield on-crop years alternate with low yield off-crop years. Research was undertaken in support of the California olive industry to determine how fruit number one year impacts floral intensity and yield the following year. Irregular and alternate bearing in mango is a major problem faced by mango growers. This problem causes great economic loss to the growers with the poor yield or failure of crop during "off year'' and the selling produce at low price during "on year'' due to fruit glut in the market.

    Pruning malformed mango shoots at bearing stage Alternate bearing needs to be managed by reducing fruiting during a year by adoption of pruning and thinning practices Providing life saving irrigation at the critical stage of fruit growth etc. Providing life saving irrigation at the critical stage of fruit growth etc. Integrated nutrient and water management. Management of spongy tissue through alternate bearing (a cycle in which the tree bears excessively in one year and little the next year) or limb breakage. Thinning the fruit helps prevent these problems

    Flowering in mango trees make them especially challenging for physiologists, breeders, and growers; Mango is a terminal bearing species and the factors which determine switching from vegetative to reproductive mode are poorly understood. In general first, mango pass through a juvenile stage which lasts for several years following germination during which flowering does not occur; second reliable bearing, and off-season bearing can achieved. In Hawaii, biennial bearing is a heavy crop one year may prevent further for two years or longer. In the Hawaiian leeward sections, which are drier during the months, are considered ideal for production (Yee 1979). Regulating Mango Flowering Tropical climates are conducive to vegetative growth of perennial tropical fruit but flowering and

    biological control of mango mealybug over a large area, through a survey of mango producers. Most producers attributed the Most producers attributed the observed improvement of mango production to the success of biological control. Alternate bearing or biennial bearing is one of the major problems in many fruit crops. Each fruit tree in commercial bearing does not bear equal crop year after year, which makes fruit cultivation less remunerative to the growers and fruit traders. ..

    Alternate bearing (AB) and irregular bearing (IB) present major challenges to growers and marketers of avocados. This problem is common to most tree fruit crops, and varies in intensity, It can manifest countrywide, regionally, on a specific farm and even in the branches of a single tree. AB is typically initiated by an abnormally heavy or light crop in young trees, followed by a light or Mango trees tend to be alternate bearing. CULTURE Location: The mango grows to a good size and casts a dense shade, but the roots are not destructive. It requires full sun and perfect air drainage in winter. It does best at the top or middle level of a slope. A windbreak should be provided in exposed areas. The trees may also need staking. In the desert it needs the shade of other trees; or

    Abstract : Alternate bearing was studied in the 1983, 1984 and 1985 seasons in the mango cultivars Dabsha, Alphonse and Totapari. The average number of panicles/tree for cultivars Alphonse and Totapari was higher in the on-year than in the off-year, although the differences were small. biological control of mango mealybug over a large area, through a survey of mango producers. Most producers attributed the Most producers attributed the observed improvement of mango production to the success of biological control.

    Alternate bearing is one of the major problems in mango production all over the world including India (Silva et al., 2010 and 2013). Though several remedial measures have been suggested to overcome this problem none of these was successful until the advent of plant growth retardants (Gunjate, 2009). In commercial mango plantations, it is essential to control the vegetative growth and canopy Alternate Bearing in Mango Similarly, the flowering phenomenon in mango is a complex one. Normally, it crops heavily in one year (on year) and bears less or no crop the following year (off year). Again, it yields heavily the next year. The term biennial, alternate or irregular bearing generally signifies the tendency of mango trees to bear a heavy crop in one year (On year) and very little or

    (PDF) Appraisal of alternate bearing rhythm in mango cv. • In Dashehari mango, the average yield in high density is reportedly 9.6 tonnes compared to 0.2 tonnes in low density planting. • This yield can further be improved in alternate bearing cultivars like, Alternate bearing was analyzed for the mango growing season from 2004 to 2007. It was considered a change in yield due to alternate bearing if more than 75% of the yield in two seasons was obtained in one season. If the yield was higher as in the previous year it was classified as yield increase, when it was lower, it was classified as decrease. If in both years more than 25% of the yield of.

    Fruit Trees Thinning Young Fruit The California Backyard...

    alternate bearing in mango pdf

    MANGOS Home UC Davis Western Institute for Food Safety. 22/01/2018В В· How to manage Problems of Flowering in Mango - Alternate bearing, mango tree dropping fruit, mango tree flowers information, mango tree diseases pictures, mango tree flowering season, mango tree, In both biennial and regular bearing mango cultivars there was a progressive reduction in fruit size with decreasing numbers of supporting leaves. In regular bearing varieties more than 50 leaves are needed for normal fruit growth, if fruit growth depends upon current photoassimilates. Both regular.

    Effects of paclobutrazol (PBZ) on floral induction and

    alternate bearing in mango pdf

    SESSION V. BEARING BEHAVIOUR IN MANGO BIENNIAL BEARING. 3/05/2018 · Irregular and alternate bearing in mango (आम में अनियमित फलन को कैसे नियंत्रित करें) Bihar Agricultural University Sabour Loading... https://ckb.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%BE%DB%95%DA%95%DA%AF%DB%95:Seal_of_the_United_States_Department_of_Agriculture.svg Management of Biennial Bearing. The terms alternate, biennial, intermittent or irregular bearing for mangoes are used to describe the tendency of mango trees to bear heavy crops in one year and very little or no crop at all in the next year..

    alternate bearing in mango pdf

  • Effect of Foliar application of GA3 and NAA for reducing
  • Influence of Carbohydrates Mineral Nutrients and Plant

  • Among alternate bearing mango cultivars (Dashehari, Langra and Kesar), cultivar Langra recorded higher fruit quality over Dashehari and Kesar. Fruit firmness and Although there was a strong tendency for individual spurs to not bear fruit in successive years, whole trees or orchards are not strongly alternate bearing because fewer than 20% of the spurs on a tree bear fruit in a given year (Tombesi et al.

    Alternate bearing was analyzed for the mango growing season from 2004 to 2007. It was considered a change in yield due to alternate bearing if more than 75% of the yield in two seasons was obtained in one season. If the yield was higher as in the previous year it was classified as yield increase, when it was lower, it was classified as decrease. If in both years more than 25% of the yield of In mango, this is believed to be the result of depleted carbohydrate reserves and the imbalance can usually be even out somewhat by adjusting fertilizer application rates accordingly. Removal of flower clusters during bloom may also help alleviate the problem.

    • In Dashehari mango, the average yield in high density is reportedly 9.6 tonnes compared to 0.2 tonnes in low density planting. • This yield can further be improved in alternate bearing cultivars like • In Dashehari mango, the average yield in high density is reportedly 9.6 tonnes compared to 0.2 tonnes in low density planting. • This yield can further be improved in alternate bearing cultivars like

    alternate bearing problems of mango varieties can be minimize by increasing the C/N ratio and applying the morphological and Phenological measures viz. debloosming cultural practices and application of plant growth regulators. Alternate bearing is a serious problem prevailing in many choice varieties; rhythm of ‘On’ (heavy crop) and ‘Off’ (lean or no crop) years occurs consecutively ; profitability of mango orcharding is affected. Commercial varieties of Uttar Pradesh, Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, Bombay Green and Lucknow Safeda, are alternate bearers.

    Mango Varieties Alphonso (Happus) State : Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. Fruit medium in size, ovate oblique in shape, orange yellow in colour; juice is moderate-abundant; Alternate bearing is a serious problem prevailing in many choice varieties; rhythm of ‘On’ (heavy crop) and ‘Off’ (lean or no crop) years occurs consecutively ; profitability of mango orcharding is affected. Commercial varieties of Uttar Pradesh, Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, Bombay Green and Lucknow Safeda, are alternate bearers.

    A study was made to induce flowering in an “off-year” in the strictly irregularly-bearing mango cultivar ‘Langra’. Cycocel 3000 mg/l on ringed shoots produced the largest number of flower panicles (62.3%), whereas the control recorded the lowest number (8%). alternate bearing problems of mango varieties can be minimize by increasing the C/N ratio and applying the morphological and Phenological measures viz. debloosming cultural practices and application of plant growth regulators.

    Alternate Bearing in Mango Similarly, the flowering phenomenon in mango is a complex one. Normally, it crops heavily in one year (on year) and bears less or no crop the following year (off year). Again, it yields heavily the next year. The term biennial, alternate or irregular bearing generally signifies the tendency of mango trees to bear a heavy crop in one year (On year) and very little or It is nevertheless still our main objective to find ways of eliminating alternate bearing in avocado trees as we are convinced that the small fruit problem with Hass is a symptom of its biennial bearing …

    horticulturae Article Combined Effects of Fertilizer, Irrigation, and Paclobutrazol on Yield and Fruit Quality of Mango Babul C. Sarker 1,*, Mohammad A. Rahim 2 and Douglas D. Archbold 3 Biennial bearing (or alternate) bearing is a term used in pomology to refer to trees that have an irregular crop load from year to year. In the "on" year too much fruit is set, leading to small fruit size.

    five years before bearing fruit. Mango trees can remain in production for 40 years or more. Mango trees require space to grow and are generally planted in rows with 10 to 30 feet between individual trees and 20 . to 30 feet between rows. Developing trees are pruned so . that there are three to four main branches on the trunk at different heights, and to remove any branches that are less than 22/01/2018В В· How to manage Problems of Flowering in Mango - Alternate bearing, mango tree dropping fruit, mango tree flowers information, mango tree diseases pictures, mango tree flowering season, mango tree

    Management of Biennial Bearing. The terms alternate, biennial, intermittent or irregular bearing for mangoes are used to describe the tendency of mango trees to bear heavy crops in one year and very little or no crop at all in the next year. An area wide perturbation can result in synchro- nisation between trees in terms of alternate bearing. Rosenstock et al. (2010) reported that 58% of trees in a pistachio orchard of 4288 trees

    alternate bearing in mango pdf

    In general, bearing mango trees should receive about 1 pound of a complete fertilizer (containing N, P, and K) annually for each inch of trunk diameter measured 4 to 5 feet above ground level. Half of the fertilizer should be applied just before flowering and the rest applied after the crop is harvested. Supplemental N should be applied just before flowering rather than during fall and winter hormones (IAA and zeatin riboside) in alternate bearing in Panniyur-1 variety. The experiment was conducted for three The experiment was conducted for three consecutive years at Murugarajendra estate, Madikeri, Karnataka, India (12.42 N, 75.73Лљ E).